Weather and Climate Of Peru
Weather and Climate Of Peru–From the 32 existing climates in the world, Peru has 27; according to the Climate Classification of Thornwaite (SENAMHI, 1988), it is also considered as one of the twelve megadiverse countries in the world, according to the Cancun Statement (2002) recognized by the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP).
All these recognitions are mainly due to the fact that Peru has particularly complex geography from which its most outstanding features are the elevations of the Andes Mountain Range and the Pacific Ocean currents, that determine the different climates and landscapes in the desert coastal region, the puna or high Andean plateau, and the tropical jungle in the Amazon Basin, all of them converging in a territory with a great variety of natural resources.
When traveling to Peru, the sun is strong, particularly in the higher altitudes. Please bring a sun hat that has a circular brim all the way around (not a baseball cap) and sunscreen. Bring comfortable, cushioned walking shoes for the hard cobblestone streets, a sweater, clothes you can layer and an all-weather jacket. Remember that during your trip you will be traveling between regions and will need to be prepared for all weather conditions. Please check to which season and region(s) you will be traveling and pack accordingly or consult to your Peru Summit Adventures tailor-made tours specialist for further details for a specific destination. Winter months (May – October) are cold. During those periods you will need a warm jacket, gloves, a hat, and a scarf. Some religious sites may require modest dress to enter (no shorts, short skirts, or sleeveless tops). Peru’s climate varies by season and region. The coastal region (Lima) has two clear seasons, summer (December – March) and winter (May – October). Summer temperatures in this region can reach 86°F/ 30oC. Winter is generally damp and chilly, with temperatures dropping to 50°F/ 10oC. This region sees little rain but can see mist and drizzle during the winter. The coastal area of Ica (Paracas, Nazca) enjoys warm dry weather throughout the year, with average temperatures around 75 – 86°F/ 20oC – 30oC. The highlands region of Peru (Cuzco, Puno, Urubamba, Machu Picchu, Huaraz, Arequipa) have a dry temperate climate that also experiences two distinct seasons. The dry season (May – October) consists of sunny days and cold nights with very little rain. The rainy season in the highlands runs from December to March. Temperatures can change drastically during the day in this region, sometimes varying as widely as highs around 65°F/ 18oC and lows of 35°F/ 2oC during the same day. The jungle region (Amazon Jungle) is tropical and humid. Throughout the year temperatures range from mid to upper 86s/ 30oC during the day and drop into the 70s/ 20oC during the night. The summer months (April – October) are considered the dry season, though despite this name it should be remembered that it rains two-thirds of the year in the rainforest. The rainy season (November – March) sees frequent showers and high river levels.
Best Time to Travel
It’s not possible to find a single period when entire Peru offers its best weather, in fact, the best time in the Andean areas and in the Amazon is the Southern Hemisphere winter (June to August), while along the coast during this period the weather is cool, cloudy and foggy. To find warm and sunny weather along the coast and in Lima, the best time is from December to April, and in particular, the best period for swimming or any wave/sea sport is from January to March.
Climate in the Amazon Rainforest (Manu National Park & Tambopata national Reserve)
In the vast area of eastern Peru occupied by plains and hills and belonging to the Amazon Basin, there is an impenetrable rainforest, almost completely uninhabited. The northern region has an equatorial climate, hot and humid all year round, with frequent rainfall, while in the south the climate is tropical, with a relatively dry season in winter.
In Manu National Park and Tambopata National Reserve, the least rainy season goes from May to September. Here, during winter there is also a decrease in temperature, in fact, the average minimum temperature goes down to about 15 °C/ 59 °F. In some parts of Manu and Tambopata receive 6 meters and a half (21 feet) of rain per year. Here the “best” period is from May to September when only 300 to 350 mm (12/14 in) of rainfall per month.
Although the Amazon jungle is consistently humid and tropical, with significant rainfall year-round, it, too, experiences two clearly different seasons. During the dry season (May-October), temperatures reach 86°F to 100°F (30°C-38°C) during the day. From November to April, there are frequent rain showers (which last only a few hours at a time), causing the rivers to swell; temperatures are similarly steamy.
Geographical and Climate Information of Peru
Peru is considered as the twentieth largest country in the world and the third one in South America. Peru is geographically located in the central-western part of South America just underneath the Equatorial line; it has a total area of 1 285 215,6 km2. To the north it is bordered by Ecuador and Colombia, to the east by Brazil, to the southeast by Bolivia, to the south, it is bordered by Chile and to the west by the Pacific Ocean. It is also important to mention that according to our Constitution, the maritime domain of Peru extends 200 miles offshore.
On this matter, the Peruvian sea is heterogeneous due to the confluence of two ocean currents of different characteristics: the Peruvian Current of Humboldt Current of cold waters flowing northward, that determines a temperate desert climate in the coast instead of tropical; and the warm El Niño Current, that permanently influences the northern coast of the country and eventually flows further south.
It is worth mentioning that these currents determine up to four sea zones off the Peruvian coast:
- The cold sea of the Peruvian Current, down to the central part of Chile, of relatively low temperatures.
- The tropical sea of warm temperatures,
- The ocean zone east of the Peruvian Current, of warm temperatures.
- The transition zone, between the cold sea and the tropical sea, where the cold and warm waters mix together off the coasts of Piura and Lambayeque (Northern Peru).
Concerning the presence of the great Andes Mountains, which locates along the country; it determines the geographical heterogeneity of Peru and it is expressed in:
- Three large continental masses: the coast, between the sea and the Andes Mountains; the Andean region or Sierra, as a mountain mass; and the Amazon region, east of the Andes Mountains.
- Three main hydrographic regions: the Pacific, the Atlantic, and the Titicaca.
- Also the different zones in the Mountain region: the low plateau, north of the Porculla depression; the center and southern Puna; and the High Plateau, in the surroundings of the Titicaca Lake.